Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin found in several parts of the body, including the heart and bones. It assists in the manufacture of proteins which are essential for things as diverse as blood clotting and bone growth1. Two proteins available in vitamin K specifically, known as osteocalcin proteins, play the most significant role in balancing calcium in the body and incorporating the mineral into bones2.
Vitamin D, another fat-soluble vitamin, also plays a crucial role in building bone, primarily by helping the body absorb and retain calcium and phosphorus3. In addition, a growing body of research has found that vitamin D works to promote the production of vitamin K-dependent proteins, which require vitamin K for carboxylation to function properly4.
Optimizing Bone and Cardiovascular Health
Provided by chlorophyll, vitamin K can be found in dark leafy greens, along with broccoli, asparagus, beef liver, green tea, and various other food sources. It is also independently produced by intestinal bacteria. Due to this, vitamin K deficiencies are rare5.
Vitamin D is found in fatty fish, eggs, certain dairy products, and fortified cereals. The human body creates this vitamin through direct exposure to sunlight as well. Unfortunately, with protective clothing, sunscreen use, and other factors, including the weather, it can be difficult to create sufficient amounts of vitamin D in this way. Approximately 35 percent of adults in the United States are suffering from a vitamin D deficiency6.
Because vitamin D deficiency is common, many people choose to supplement. This may have some benefits, however, supplementing with both may offer more. While vitamin K deficiencies are rare, current evidence suggests that supplementing vitamins K and D in combination is more effective for cardiovascular and bone health than supplementing either individually4.
Not everyone needs to supplement with vitamins K and D. However, randomized controlled trials have shown that combining these supplements may be particularly useful for the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women4, and may assist in preventing bone loss and other issues in people experiencing anorexia nervosa7, depressive disorders8, and a handful of other illnesses. The best way to learn if you could benefit from supplementation is through a frank discussion with your primary care provider.
Pellecome® is a leader in treating issues impacting postmenopausal women, along with concerns such as depression, disordered eating, and hormonal imbalance. Our vitamin K and D supplements are manufacturers to our exacting standards of purity and efficacy, and are only available through carefully selected healthcare partners.
- Vitamin K; Available from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-k
- Zoch ML, Clemens TL, Riddle RC. New insights into the biology of osteocalcin. Bone. 2016;82:42-49. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.046; Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4670816
- Vitamin D; Available from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-d
- van Ballegooijen AJ, Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Grübler MR, Verheyen N. The Synergistic Interplay between Vitamins D and K for Bone and Cardiovascular Health: A Narrative Review. Int J Endocrinol. 2017;2017:7454376. doi:10.1155/2017/7454376; Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613455/
- Vitamin K; Available from https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/supplement/vitamin-k
- Vitamin D Deficiency; Available from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15050-vitamin-d-vitamin-d-deficiency
- Urano A, Hotta M, Ohwada R, Araki M. Vitamin K deficiency evaluated by serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in patients with anorexia nervosa with bone loss. Clin Nutr. 2015;34(3):443-448. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.04.016; Available from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24909585/
- Bolzetta F, Veronese N, Stubbs B, et al. The Relationship between Dietary Vitamin K and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from a Large Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2019;11(4):787. Published 2019 Apr 5. doi:10.3390/nu11040787; Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520944/